Congress of Vienna
The European conference held at Vienna from 1814–15 to settle the territorial problems left by the Napoleonic Wars.
An Auxiliary Agreement to the Congress of Vienna Treaty, Signed by George IV-Austria was given back most of the territory it had lost and was also given land in Germany and Italy (Lombardia and Venice) Britain got several strategic colonial territories, and they also gained control of the seas. France was restored under the rule of Louis XVIII. Spain was restored under Ferdinand VII
Frontspiece-Important Decisions: France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoleon The Dutch Republic was united with the Austrian Netherlands to form a single kingdom of the Netherlands under the House of Orange. Norway and Sweden were joined under a single ruler Switzerland was declared neutral Russia got Finland and effective control over the new kingdom of Poland Prussia was given much of Saxony and important parts of Westphalia and the Rhine Province.
Russia began to exercise her military strength during theRusso-Turkish Wars of 1828, and in 1831 when Russia defended the Ottomans from Egyptian attack. The Ottoman Empire bountifully rewarded Russia with the Treaty of Unikar-Skelessi in 1833, which gave Russia an advantageous access to the straits between Bosporus and Dardanelles. The Concert was angered that Russia was permitted to use this area, and in an effort to peaceably solve the problem and curtail Russian expansionism, held the Straits
The first major roadblock for the Concert was their decision to intervene in Latin American revolutions and Briatin's subsequent refusal to do so. Britain reasoned that it would lose trade profit from the Spanish if the rebellions were ended, and thus from nationalistic interest refused to cooperate. Fortuitously, the problem was solved by the United States' issue of the Monroe Doctrine in 1820, which prevented any European nation from gaining control of Latin America.
The Concert of Europe was successful in suppressing uprisings for constitutional governments in both Spain and Italy in the respective years of 1820 and 1822. Crushing liberal forces in these two countries proved to be positive as they enhanced the Concert's integrity by proving to the world that it had the muscle to uphold its resolution
The Concert of Europe was formulated in 1815 as a mechanism to enforce the decisions of the Congress of Vienna. Composed of the Quadruple Alliance: Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain, its main priorities were to establish a balance of power, thereby preserving the territorial status quo, and to protect "legitimate" governments. Headed by Prince Metternich of Austria, the Concert of Europe was one of the first serious attempts in modern times to establish an international society to main
The practices of enlightened despotism were not entirely reestablished. Despite the complaints of unbending legitimists and the dire predictions of disappointed reformers, the peacemakers succeeded in creating a new political order in Germany that endured for half a century. The long years of war and unrest that had convulsed Europe during the era of the French Revolution and Napoleon were followed by even longer years of stability and tranquillity.
Jewish representatives formally demanded emancipation at the Congress of Vienna (1815), and German academics and politicians alike responded with vicious opposition. The Jews were portrayed to the public as "upstarts" who were attempting to take control of the economy, particularly the financial sector. Antisemitic publications became common in the German press.Influenced by the French Revolution with its Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and other advancements
Folks resented any attempts at Jewish rights. The Hep Hep Riots broke out in Wurzburg, Bavaria, on August 2, 1819, triggered by the return of the humanistic Professor Joseph Behr from a state convention in Munich where he had been urging the extension of Jewish rights. The targets of the mob signified what people resented most. . Rioters ripped off the signboards from Jewish owned shops legalized to trade openly three years earlier in 1816.
Jews succeeded in gaining the support of such leading personalities as Metternich (Austria), Hardenberg, and Humboldt (Prussia). In October 1814 a committee of five German states met to prepare proposals for the constitution of the new federation. Bavaria and Wuerttemberg, fearing the curtailment of their independence, opposed Austria, Prussia, and Hanover, especially on the question of Jewish rights.
THE CONGRESS OF VERONA-1822- All governments were warned to lend their support and constant aid to suppress the disturbers of the public peace, who in more than one country were aiming at revolution, destruction, and a condition of complete impotence. It was obvious the Holy Alliance was at an end. Great Britain had completely broken with it, if indeed she had ever belonged to it, and France was only able to give it a half-hearted and divided support.
Congress memorial in Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle)- France succeeded in its goal of reducing the obligations imposed by the Treaty of Paris of 1815, which involved stationing an Allied army in France and reparations. The occupation was formally terminated at the conference on 30 September 1818; by 30 November evacuation was complete. France was admitted as a full discussion partner in the European congress system and France's position as a European power was restored
The Concert of Europe was formulated in 1815 as a mechanism to enforce the decisions of the Congress of Vienna. Composed of the Quadruple Alliance: Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain, its main priorities were to establish a balance of power, thereby preserving the territorial status quo, and to protect "legitimate" governments. Headed by Prince Metternich, the Concert of Europe was one of the first serious attempts in modern times to establish a society to maintain the peace.