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Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

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Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

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Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

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Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

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Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

Osseous of metaplasia is a rare condition in which there is a transformation of the normal endometrial tissue into bone. It is an uncommon clinical finding with an incidence of 0,3/1000 and most cases occur after miscarriage or abortion. The presence of bone in the endometrium was first described by Virchow who related this condition to a spontaneous differentiation of fibroblasts into osteoblasts. Typically, this type of metaplasia occurs during reproductive years

Osseous of metaplasia is a rare condition in which there is a transformation of the normal endometrial tissue into bone. It is an uncommon clinical finding with an incidence of 0,3/1000 and most cases occur after miscarriage or abortion. The presence of bone in the endometrium was first described by Virchow who related this condition to a spontaneous differentiation of fibroblasts into osteoblasts. Typically, this type of metaplasia occurs during reproductive years

The new classification system of Müllerian anomalies developed by the ESGE/ESHRE CONUTA working group has dedicated a specific interest to those uteri, named “dysmorphic”, characterized by a normal outline but with an abnormal lateral wall’s shape of the uterine cavity ( i.e. T-shaped uterus and tubular-shaped/ infantilis uteri). These uteri are associated with infertility and pregnancy loss and in the previous American Fertility Society classification were included in class VII

The new classification system of Müllerian anomalies developed by the ESGE/ESHRE CONUTA working group has dedicated a specific interest to those uteri, named “dysmorphic”, characterized by a normal outline but with an abnormal lateral wall’s shape of the uterine cavity ( i.e. T-shaped uterus and tubular-shaped/ infantilis uteri). These uteri are associated with infertility and pregnancy loss and in the previous American Fertility Society classification were included in class VII

Utero en "T"

Utero en "T"

In 1948 , Professor Joseph Asherman from TelAviv Hadassah Hospital published the first article about the disease that bears his name and which he defined as traumatic amenorrhea or atretic amenorrhea. Since then, interest in this syndrome has increased mainly due to the development of hysteroscopy and its relationship with secondary infertility.

Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

The use of biopsy forceps or hysteroscopic scissors help to overcome more severe cases that are not solved by the input optical rotation technique. The introduction of scissors or a closed clamp into the stenotic cervical canal and subsequent opened extraction, dilate the cervix just enough to introduce the tip of the hysteroscope. Sometimes the use of scissors is needed to cut the lateral corner of the cervical canal or fibrous tissue adhesions at the level of the internal os.

The use of biopsy forceps or hysteroscopic scissors help to overcome more severe cases that are not solved by the input optical rotation technique. The introduction of scissors or a closed clamp into the stenotic cervical canal and subsequent opened extraction, dilate the cervix just enough to introduce the tip of the hysteroscope. Sometimes the use of scissors is needed to cut the lateral corner of the cervical canal or fibrous tissue adhesions at the level of the internal os.

Endometrial polyps are areas of growth of endometrial tissue inside the uterine cavity. They are composed of stroma, glands and blood vessels coated by endometrial lining. Polyps are the most common endometrial pathology found on diagnostic hysteroscopy and represent a frequent cause of operative hysteroscopy. They are usually benign in nature, although, when symptomatic, about 20% have small areas of hiperplasia being between 0.5% and 1% malignant.

Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

Vaginal endometriosis is classified as superficial and deep. Superficial vaginal endometriotic implants are usually located in the vaginal fornix and have no association with DIE of the recto-vaginal septum. Deep vaginal endometriosis is more common; it is usually associated with endometriosis of the recto-vaginal septum and appears as nodule or polyp in the posterior vaginal fornix between the insertion of the uterosacral ligaments

Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

The main obstetrical problem for patients with unicornuate uterus lies more in maintaining the pregnancy (early pregnancy loss) more than achieving conception (infertility). Unicornuate uterus is associated with obstetric complications such as ectopic pregnancy (2.7%), spontaneous abortion in the first trimester (24.3%), early pregnancy loss in the second trimester (9.7%) and preterm delivery (20.1%).

Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

The name cervix derives from the Latin word “Cervic” meaning "neck". It represents the lower portion of the uterus and communicates the uterine cavity with the vagina. It has a cylindrical shape with a length of about 3 cm and a diameter of about 2 cm.

Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

Detail of a polyp that can't pass through the internal OS. The most frequently affected area of the cervix by stenosis is the internal OS.

Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community

Detail of the anterior and posterior arches of isthmocele or cesarean scar defect. Image with cutting loop to show the size of the healing defect of a previous cesarean scar

Hysteroscopy Newsletter is an opened forum to all professionals who want to contribute with their knowledge and even share their doubts with a word-wide gynecological community