Calligraphy in the Sala de Dos Hermanas, Alhambra, Granada, Spain; 14th century. This is just one of countless examples of calligraphy that abound throughout the rooms and courtyards of the Alhambra. The calligraphy includes inscriptions that commemorate conquests, lines from the Qur'an, and a great deal of poetry. In this particular example, poetry inscribed in carved stucco is incased in a circle and surrounded by an array of detailed geometrical and vegetal designs.
Mezquita de Córdoba, built in 8th-10th centuries, Córdoba, Spain. The mosque was converted into a cathedral in 1236, after Córdoba was conquered by the Christians and renovations were made in the 16th century. However, it still retains many elements of Islamic architecture. It is also a great example of Islam's building upon earlier traditions and techniques. Horseshoe arches, for example, date back to the Visigoths, but became a feature of Western Islamic architecture.