Vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is the term for abnormal flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract and is typically a problem encountered in young children. For grading of vesicoureteric reflux, please refer to vesicoureteric refl.
The goblet sign (or champagne glass sign) refers to the appearance of the ureter when it is focally dilated by an intraluminal mass. It is best seen when the ureter is opacified from below, by a retrograde ureterogram. Presence of this sign indicates the pathology to be chronic, permitting the lesion to be accommodated in the ureter. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/goblet-sign
Oesophageal diverticula are sac or pouch projections arising from the oesophagus. Oesophageal diverticula are either: true diverticula: include all esophageal layers false diverticula: contain only mucosa and submucosa herniating through the muscular layer (e.g. Zenker's diverticulum). http://radiopaedia.org/articles/oesophageal-diverticula
The apple core sign, also known as a napkin ring sign (bowel), is most frequently associated with constriction of the lumen of the colon by a stenosing annular colorectal carcinoma. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/apple-core-sign-colon
The appearances of achalasia are almosy pathognomonic on barium swallow. These include: 1. Gas filled dilated oesophagus on control film 2. Distended oesophagus with air-fluid level 3. An adynamic oesophagus 4. A distal acute taper of the oesophagus with a bird-beak appearance. The bird-beak sign is used to refer to the tapering of the inferior oesophagus in achalasia. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/achalasia